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Hereditary Nephritis (Hereditary Samoyed Glomerulopathy or X-Linked Nephritis)

Nephritis literally means inflammation of the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney. Hereditary nephritis means the condition is inherited rather than caused by environmental factors.  It  is characterized by progressive kidney dysfunction ultimately leading to kidney failure and death.

In Samoyeds, hereditary nephritis is X-linked.  It  is transmitted by mothers to sons through the X chromosome. The disease is more severe in males because they have only one X chromosome, with death typically occurring by 15 months.   Since females have two X chromosomes (and only one is typically affected) their disease is less serious.

 

 

 


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Signs and Symptoms

These symptoms start very early in affected male puppies:
   

  • Excessive drinking and urination

  • Vomiting, poor appetite and weight loss

  • Lethargy, muscle weakness

  • Proteinuria (protein in the urine). If severe protein loss is present there can be edema (swelling) of abdomen and paws.

  • Hematuria (blood in the urine)

  • Anemia from chronic renal failure

  • Decrease in kidney function (decreased glomerular filtration rate)

  • Progression to renal failure, with males dying by 15 months of age.


Carrier females also lose weight and develop proteinuria, but the disease progresses much slower and renal failure occurs later in life.


Causes

The cause in Samoyeds is  an X-linked inherited genetic defect. The disease is carried on the X-chromosome. Males have only one X chromosome (coming from their mother) and hence the disease is more serious. Because females have two X chromosomes (one from their mother, one from their father) the disease is not so serious.


Risk Factors

History of hereditary nephritis in a family.


Diagnostic Tests

  • Urinalysis to check for protein and blood
  • CBC and serum biochemistry tests
  • Urine protein/creatinine ratio to determine severity of protein loss in urine (24 hour collection of urine is required to perform this test)
  • Blood pressure measurements

There is a DNA (genetic) test for this disease that may be obtained from vetGen.


Treatment Guidelines

Note: Treatment of animals should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian. Veterinarians should consult the current literature and current pharmacological formularies before initiating any treatment protocol.

There is no curative treatment for hereditary nephritis. Special diets (low protein, low salt, low phosphorous) may be prescribed as palliative measures. Medications may be used to control blood pressure. Treatment with ACE inhibitors, a type of blood pressure medication, may improve the life span a few months, but is not curative. There is also some research evidence that dietary modification can slow the process.


Management

This is a genetically transmitted disorder.  Males with this defect should not be bred.  Females from a line with this disorder should not be bred unless their DNA has been tested and found to be clear of the mutation that causes the disorder.  Affected bitches and carriers should not be bred.

 

DNA test from vetGen

 

 


References

Glomerular Disease in:  The Merck Veterinary Manual    four bones rating

Bernard et al.  1977.  Familial Renal Disease in Samoyed Dogs.  Can Vet Journal 18:  181-189.   three bones rating

Zheng et al.  1994.  Canine X chromosome-linked hereditary nephritis:  A genetic model for human X-linked hereditary nephritis resulting from a single base mutation in the gene encoding the alpha5 chain of collagen type IV .  PNAS 91:  3989-3993.    three bones rating

Glomerulopathies.  Page 376 in:  Veterinary pediatrics:  dogs and cats from birth to six months by JD Hoskins.   Saunders  2001.   four bones rating

 Canine and Murine Hereditary Nephritis.  Page 542 in: Diseases of the kidney and urinary tract by RW Schrier.  Lippincott Williams  & Wilkins, 2007.     four bones rating


Support Groups

Unable to find any canine nephritis support groups


Suggested Links

X-linked recessive inheritance at Wikipedia  two bones rating

Hereditary X-linked nephritis at www.gopetsamerica.com  two bones rating
   
Hereditary Nephritis at Mirage Samoyeds    two bones rating

Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy at wikipedia     two bones rating

Chronic Renal Failure at www.marvistavet.com    two bones rating

Familial Kidney Disease at Canine Inherited Disorders Database, University of Prince Edward Island    three bones rating

Kidney Disease in Dogs at vetprof.com  one bone rating

Juvenile Renal Disease at faqs.org    two bones rating


Current Research



 

 
Notable Quotations

"My sunshine doesn't come from the skies, it comes from the love in my dog's eyes." ~ Unknown
 


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