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Closed registries release only normal results to the public.  PennHIP and Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) are examples of closed registries.  Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) was a closed registry, orginally.  Now OFA is a semi-closed registry. All normal results are still released, but abnormal results will only be released to the public with owner consent. Open registries would provide information on normals, affected and carriers.

OFA (hip, thyroid, pra, heart, sebaceous adentitis, etc.)



CHIC - The Canine Health Information Center, also known as CHIC, is a centralized canine health database jointly sponsored by the AKC/Canine Health Foundation (AKC/CHF) and the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA).  For more information, the SCA CHIC liaison is Cheri Hollenback.

gene tests:

The following DNA tests are available for Samoyeds at this time.  These are listed for informational purposes only. SCARF neither recommends or endorses the validity of the tests themselves.

xl-pra from Optigen

DNA test for Inherited Retinal Dysplasia/Dwarfism from Optigen

DNA test for Hereditary Nephritis - Samoyed Hereditary Glomerulopathy from Vetgen

Genetic Testing: A Guide for Breeders by Mary Whiteley, Ph.D.


suggested reading:

A talking glossary of genetic terminology

Picking A Puppy - How the genetics of behavior can help you choose the best one for you by Susan Thorpe-Vargas Ph.D.

Guide to Hereditary and Congenital Diseases in Dogs by W. Jean Dodds, DVM

Genetics And Breeding Strategies: Essays For The Dog Breeder by Dr. Susan Thorpe-Vargas

Canine Inherited Disorders Database

Dog Genome Project

Genetics and Diversity on the website

Breeding for Health on the website

K9 Genetics Discussion Group on yahoo

Canine Genetics Resources on - a large collection of links for further reading

Breeding Better Dogs - a list of articles by Carmen L. Battaglia - some of these are very thought provoking

Natural Protection of Genetic Variation by Dr. Per Eric Sundgren - this makes understanding the importance of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) to your breeding program very understandable

Practical Genetics for Samoyed Breeders and Owners by Jerold S Bell, DVM, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine






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